Disruptability [+]

Species Disruptability Reference Submitter
P. berghei ANKA
Possible
RMgm-839 Imported from RMgmDB
P. falciparum 3D7
Possible
24602217 Theo Sanderson, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

Mutant phenotypes [+]

Species Stage Phenotype Reference Submitter
P. berghei ANKA Asexual
No difference
RMgm-839 Imported from RMgmDB
P. berghei ANKA Gametocyte
Difference from wild-type
RMgm-839
Normal production of gametocytes. The production of male gametes is affected. The male gametocyte displays abnormal exflagellation; instead of forming 8 gametes, it produced only one, shared thicker flagellum. Evidence is presented that rupture of the erythrocyte membrane is blocked and thereby preventing egress of male gametes from the erythrocyte.
Imported from RMgmDB
P. berghei ANKA Ookinete
Difference from wild-type
RMgm-839
Strongly reduced ookinete production as a result of aberrant production of male gametes. The male gametocyte displays abnormal exflagellation; instead of forming 8 gametes, it produced only one, shared thicker flagellum. Evidence is presented that rupture of the erythrocyte membrane is blocked and thereby preventing egress of male gametes from the erythrocyte. Evidence is presented that female gametocytes/female gametes show normal egress from the erythrocyte.
Imported from RMgmDB
P. berghei ANKA Oocyst
Difference from wild-type
RMgm-839
Strongly reduced oocyst production as a result of strongly reduced ookinete production.
Imported from RMgmDB
P. falciparum 3D7 Asexual
No difference
24602217 Theo Sanderson, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

Imaging data (from Malaria Metabolic Pathways)

Location of PPLP2 in P. falciparum gametocytes during activation. A. Cultures of gametocytes before activation, and at 7 and 15 min post-activation, were labelled with antiserum B directed against PPLP2 (green) and counterstained with (A) anti-Pfs230 antisera (red) or (B) anti-Pfs25. The corresponding differential interference contrast (DIC) images are shown. Note that mature P. falciparum gametocytes have a banana-like shape but round up during activation. Bar, 5 μm (A) and 2 μm (B). Deligianni E, Morgan RN, Bertuccini L, Wirth CC, Silmon de Monerri NC, Spanos L, Blackman MJ, Louis C, Pradel G, Siden-Kiamos I. A perforin-like protein mediates disruption of the erythrocyte membrane during egress of Plasmodium berghei male gametocytes. Cell Microbiol. 2013 15(8):1438-55 PMID:

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Stage-specific expression of PfPLP1 and PfPLP2 in the blood stage of P. falciparum. Expression of PfPLP1 and PfPLP2 starts in trophozoite stage, with maximal expression in schizonts. In mature schizonts, PfPLP1 and PfPLP2 show punctate staining at the apical end of merozoites. PfPLP1 also shows a ring-like staining, suggesting its localization to RBC membrane. Scale bar, 2 mm.Garg S, Agarwal S, Kumar S, Shams Yazdani S, Chitnis CE, Singh S. Calcium-dependent permeabilization of erythrocytes by a perforin-like protein during egress of malaria parasites. Nat Commun. 2013 Apr 16;4:1736.

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Immunofluorescence assays of P. falciparum gametocytes at 15 min post-activation showed PPLP2 labelling (green) in association with shed membranes (indicated by arrows). The exflagellating microgametocyte is highlighted by labelling of Pfs25 (red). Arrowheads indicate microgametes. The corresponding differential interference contrast (DIC) images are shown. Bar, 5 μm.Deligianni E, Morgan RN, Bertuccini L, Wirth CC, Silmon de Monerri NC, Spanos L, Blackman MJ, Louis C, Pradel G, Siden-Kiamos I. A perforin-like protein mediates disruption of the erythrocyte membrane during egress of Plasmodium berghei male gametocytes. Cell Microbiol. 2013 15(8):1438-55

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PPLP2 localization in asexual blood stage parasites. PPLP2-positive vesicular structures are present in the cytoplasm of trophozoites (TZ) and schizonts (SZ). PPLP2 was immunolabelled with mouse anti-PPLP2RP1 antisera (green), the asexual blood stages were visualized by rabbit anti-MSP1 antisera (red). Nuclei were highlighted by Hoechst stain (blue). PPLP2 first appeared in the trophozoites stage and here localized in vesicular structures. Multiple PPLP2-positive vesicular structures were detected also in mature schizonts. The blood stage parasites were highlighted by labelling of MSP1.Wirth CC, Glushakova S, Scheuermayer M, Repnik U, Garg S, Schaack D, Kachman MM, Weißbach T, Zimmerberg J, Dandekar T, Griffiths G, Chitnis CE, Singh S, Fischer R, Pradel G. Perforin-like protein PPLP2 permeabilizes the red blood cell membrane during egress of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. Cell Microbiol. 2014 Mar 7.

See original on MMP

More information

PlasmoDB PBANKA_1432400
GeneDB PBANKA_1432400
Malaria Metabolic Pathways Localisation images
Pathways mapped to
Previous ID(s) PB000619.01.0, PB001069.01.0, PBANKA_143240
Orthologs PCHAS_1434400 , PF3D7_1216700 , PKNH_1436300 , PVP01_1435500 , PVX_123515 , PY17X_1434700
Google Scholar Search for all mentions of this gene